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Human Development

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Unit 1- Growth & Development

Growth refers to quantitative changes- increase in size and structure. A person grows physically as well as mentally.

Development refers to qualitative changes

PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

1. Heredity

HEREDITY gives the human individual a similarity to the other organisms, but also a uniqueness. Characteristics of both parents are passed on to the child through the union of the father's sperm and the egg cell of the mother to form a zygote or offspring.

Genes are the submicroscopic particles in the chromosomes and the unit carriers of heredity

Genes are composed of chromosomes that determines sex of offspring.

X and y chromosomes for male, and 2 x's for female

Identical twins are the result of splitting of one zygote into 2 separate cells w/c develop into 2 individual organisms.

Fraternal twins, in contrast with the identical twins, are developed from 2 separate zygotes.

2. Maturation & Learning

Maturation is the unfolding of traits potentially present in the individual because of his hereditary endowment.

Learning is the development that comes from exercise and effort

Maturation Principles

* Learning depends upon the biological basis being present as well as the opportunity to practice.

* Chronological age and maturation stage, although related are not synonymous.

* Although overall maturation development if forward and continuous, the parent

should expect to see plateaus and regression in the child's development.

* The more biological mature a child is the easier for him to learn a given task.

* The child usually gives signals indicating his maturation readiness for a given task.

* The child's maturational development progresses from general to specific behavior.

* Training given after the maturation readiness maybe less efficient.

* The more biological mature a child is the easier for him to learn a given task.

3. Environment

ENVIRONMENT includes all the conditions in the world that influence in any way our behavior, growth, development or life processes

It is divided into:

* internal

* external

* social

4.Maturational process

Maturational process

From the time of conception up to maturity, the development of an individual shows certain characteristics that are always typical of the maturation process.

5. Fertilization

Fusion between sperm and egg to generate a new organism.

6. Stages of Man's Life

1. Childbirth/ Infant

The word infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. It is commonly used as a slightly more formal word for baby. A newborn infant is known as a neonate (neonatal) after the final stage of gestation.

2. Childhood

A child (plural: children) is a young human. Depending on context it may mean someone who is not yet an adult, or someone who has not yet reached puberty

3. Puberty

Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction

4. Early Adulthood

A young adult is someone in the transition from a teenager to an adult. It is usually informally considered to encompass the period from age 16 to age 25, although the exact period varies between societies and time periods.

5. Adulthood and Aging

From ages 26 and above

6. Death

7. Prenatal Development and Post Natal devp't

Pre-natal Development

refers to the growth of zygote to a baby that takes about 270 days or 9 nos.

Post natal devp't

refers to devp't after birth

8. Motor Development

Motor refers to movement, such as walking, swimming, grasping, etc.

Motor skills appear in a definite order but at different rates. There is a pattern of development from month to month and from year to year. The pattern is uniform as a result of maturation

9.Progressive Changes during the period of development of Filipino Baby

3 months- on the verge of rolling position

4 months- Turns to prone from supine position

5 months- Turns back to supine from prone position

6-7 months- Rolls from stomach to stomach

8 months- Alternates from prone to sitting to prone position; crawls

9 months- Pulls himself to standing position by holding on to rail.

10-11 months- Sits with good control; cruises while holding on to rail

12 months- walks even if only one hand is held

10. Language Development

Language includes every means of communications in which thoughts and

feelings are symbolized so as to convey meaning to other.

* Newly

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